State museum applied art and handicraft history of Uzbekistan
In 1927, the first exhibition of best works of Uzbek masters was conducted. Subsequently it has grown to a permanent one and became known as “National Exhibition of Uzbekistan”.
Namely these collected samples of applied art were demonstrated in the Museum of Handicraft Art which was opened on 7 of July 1937 in Tashkent. The first director of museum was the artist V.Razvadovskiy. He was oriental ethnography and in differ period help to collect exhibits for Moscow, Saint-Petersburg museums.
Museum in 1942.
In 1938 museum was found in the palace of Russian ambassador- A.A.Polovtsov on the street Spilkova 15 (current Rakatboshi). Decoration the palace was done in oriental style in 1896-1905 years. Halls were decorated in oriental national style. The craftsmen from Tashkent: Sherali Khadja Khasanov (ganch and wood painting) ,Arslankul Nazarov with his son Tashpylat Arslankulov (ganch carving), Alimdjan Kasimdjanov (wood painting), usto Narkuzi Nurmatov from Kokand (wood painting), usto Abdullo is ceramist from Rishtan took part in decoration of the halls. Doors of central hall have been created by Umurzak Akhmedov from Margilan (wood carving).
In 1960, the museum was renamed to “Permanent Exhibition of Applied Art of Uzbekistan”. In 1970 were attach two parts- left and right to the old building. Such a reconstruction increased the territory of museum. The richest, architectural décor has a central hall of the museum-“mechmonchona”. The surface of wall was covered with ornamental ganch carving and painting. The art and technique of carving on ganch- guosum, containing the high percentage of gypsum, lie in its ability to harden quickly. Ganch is treated in a complex way, the main processes of which are: kilning, purification, and mixing up gypsum powder to which gum is added. The damp gypsum plaster is carved with sharp metal chisels: the outline of the pattern is carved first, and then the background is made deeper and the relief is worked on.
The internal rooms and ayvan – terrace were decorated by national craftsmen work.
The wood ceiling was covered with artistic painting, consists of three tiers, decorated with stalactite (cornices) and supported with four carving and painting columns. The ceiling’s painting made in technique “Kundal” in which the patterns were created with the thin gold sheet glued on the surface of wood with honey or treacle.The patterns were executed in style “girikh” is a geometric ornament . On the northern and southern walls of the hall there are niches “Tauchi” with the lattice gypsum -ganch carving “pandjara” which were decorated by Tashkent master Tashpulat Arslankulov.
From central hall you enter the “Kalonkhona” – men guest room. The surface of wall was covered with ganch carving with gilt. The wood ceiling divides in the separate caisson. In the centre of the ceiling there is “Khauzak”, decorated with carved stalactite, situated in the several steps. The entrance, the door embellished by Arabic calligraphy in Farsi language.
On the walls there are five paintings – panels of popular painter of Uzbekistan Chingiz Akhmarov (1986-1990’s). All paintings were painted with distemper on the canvas.
During years of independence, special attention was dedicated to a significant improvement of museum’s functions. In 1997 on 18 August according to the command of Ministry № 405 the museum was handed over to the Ministry of Cultural Affairs of the Republic of Uzbekistan and received a status of the “State Museum of Applied Art”.
Museum is a reserve of collections of the popular-decorative art of Uzbekistan. There are more than 7500 exhibits on display and the museum’s reserve, around 1000 of them displayed on exhibition. Differ kinds collection of applied art are demonstrated in expositions of the museum: embroidery, embroidered in gold, cloth, fabrics, carpets, printed cloth, ceramics, porcelain, wood painting, wood carving, lacquered miniature, musical instruments, jewelry, chasing. Among the precious can find works of famous artists Bukharin master of gypsum Usto Shirin Muradov, Samarqand’s master Bolta Juraev, Umarqul Juraqulov, Kokand master Kodirjon Haydarov, Master Umarqul Juraqulov, Lutfulla Fozilov, Tashkent’s potter Muhiddin Rahimov, master Usmon Zufarov and several other handicrafts.
In 2017 during August – November months were organized special folk dance group with a State Culture Institute, national company Usbekturizm. Group demonstrative show include the national folk dance and song, traditional games and performance of national cloth adjusted to tourist visitors.
Show of national cloth.
Music program of folklore group.
Total museum profit by attracting tourists for 2017 on period of July – November consists 196, 2 million local currencies –sum. Compare with 2016 profit museum increased to 80% in 2017 on period of January – November.
In differ period directors of Museum were A.I.Sidorenko (1995-1970), S.M.Abdurazzoqova (1970-1978), G.I.Shorobogatova (1979-1980), SH.G.Ganieva (1986-1988), I.Toxtahojaev (1988), M.S.Rasulova (1990-1992), G.N.Nasriddinov (1992-1994), G.M.Chitkauskina (1994-1998), T.D.Dustaev (1998-2009), N.N.Talipova (2009-2012), Z.G.Holikova (2013-2015), G.A.Karimov (2016-2017).
From June 22 of 2017 the director of museum is A.SH.Mirzorahimov, candidate of history science.
Truly, priceless monuments of our material and spiritual culture, which are kept in depository of our museums, are rare witnesses of our history. You receive a real pleasure from miracles created by handicrafts and from originality of works of art while viewing the halls of the museum.